Chronic kidney failure is a gradual loss of
your kidneys' filtering ability, usually due to high blood pressure or
diabetes. When kidney function is seriously impaired, dangerous levels
of fluid and waste can quickly accumulate in the body.
Chronic loss of function causes generalised wasting (shrinking in size) and progressive scarring within all parts of the kidneys. In time, overall scarring obscures the site of the initial damage. Yet, it is not until over 70% of the normal combined function of both kidneys is lost that most patients begin to experience symptoms of kidney failure.
Diabetes and hypertension are the two most common causes. Other
conditions responsible for the development of it are given below-
a. Decreased Cardiac output
b. Chronic liver failure
All these conditions are responsible for continuous hypoperfusion (low blood flow) of the kidneys, leading to kidney atrophy (shrinking), loss of nephron function, and chronic renal failure (CRF).
Chronic renal failure caused by changes within the kidneys, is called
renal CRF, and is broadly categorized as follows:
Interference with the normal flow of urine can produce
back-pressure within the kidneys, can damage nephrons, and lead to
obstructive uropathy, a disease of the urinary tract. Abnormalities
that may hamper urine flow and cause post-renal CRF include the
Conditions that increase your risk of kidney failure include:
The early symptoms of chronic kidney disease often occur with other
illnesses, as well. These symptoms may be the only signs of kidney
disease until the condition is more advanced.
Symptoms may include:
1. Stage 1 CKD
Slightly diminished function; Kidney damage with normal or relatively high GFR (>90 mL/min/1.73 m2). Kidney damage is defined as pathologic abnormalities or markers of damage, including abnormalities in blood or urine test or imaging studies.
2. Stage 2 CKD
Mild reduction in GFR (60-89 mL/min/1.73 m2) with kidney damage. Kidney damage is defined as pathologic abnormalities or markers of damage, including abnormalities in blood or urine test or imaging studies.
3. Stage 3 CKD
Moderate reduction in GFR (30-59 mL/min/1.73 m2). British guidelines distinguish between stage 3A (GFR 45-59) and stage 3B (GFR 30-44) for purposes of screening and referral.
4. Stage 4 CKD
Severe reduction in GFR (15-29 mL/min/1.73 m2) Preparation for renal replacement therapy.
5. Stage 5 CKD
Established kidney failure (GFR <15 mL/min/1.73 m2, or permanent renal replacement therapy (RRT).
Chronic kidney failure can affect almost every part of your body.
Potential complications may include:
High blood pressure is almost always present during all stages of
chronic kidney disease. A neurologic examination may show signs of
nerve damage. The health care provider may hear abnormal heart or lung
sounds with a stethoscope.
A urinalysis may show protein or other changes. These changes may appear 6 months to 10 or more years before symptoms appear.
Tests that check how well the kidneys are working include:
The goal of therapy is to slow down or halt the otherwise relentless
progression of CKD to stage 5. Control of blood pressure and treatment
of the original disease, whenever feasible, are the broad principles of
In some cases, dietary modifications have been proven to slow and even reverse further progression.
This should be started when the symptoms of uremia have become troublesome, despite adequate medical treatment, preferably before the patient develop serious consequences of uremia. First an arteriovenous fistula is created in the forearm, this results in distention and thickening of the vein wall which allows the repetitive insertion of needles for vascular access for heamodialysis. This is carried out for 3-5 hours 3 times weekly. Most patients notice a gradual reduction of their uremic symptoms during the first 6 weeks of treatment. They can lead relatively normal and active lives, and prolonged survival in excess of 20 years is now regularly reported.
Homeopathy does not recognise the kidneys as mere organs of excretion or
selective filtration but always recognises it in relation to the
individual as a whole. Kidneys have a generalised function—the fluids
coming into it and going out from it influence every organ, tissue and cell
of our body. Kidney function influences the complete vital economy of
Homoeopathic medicines act wonderfully in preventing the progression of disease, haemodialysis and also in reducing the number of dialysis for the patient and avoiding renal transplantation.
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