gingiva is usually coral pink, but may contain physiologic pigmentation. In
general, darker persons have darker gingiva; but in some individuals there can
be excess of pigments that give the gingiva a brownish tinge.
Characteristics of healthy gingiva
Healthy gingiva usually has a colour that has been described
as "coral pink." Other colours like red, white, and blue can signify
inflammation (gingivitis) or pathology. Although the text book colour of
gingiva is "coral pink", normal racial pigmentation makes the gingiva
appear darker. Because the colour of gingiva varies due to racial pigmentation,
uniformity of colour is more important than the underlying colour itself.
Healthy gingiva has a smooth arcuate or scalloped appearance
around each tooth. Healthy gingiva fills and fits each interdental space,
unlike the swollen gingiva papilla seen in gingivitis or the empty interdental
embrasure seen in periodontal disease. Healthy gums hold tight to each tooth in
that the gingival surface narrows to "knife-edge" thin at the free
gingival margin. On the other hand, inflamed gums have a "puffy" or
Healthy gingiva has a firm texture that is resistant to
movement, and the surface texture often exhibits surface stippling(Orange peel
appearance). Unhealthy gingiva, on the other hand, is often swollen and mushy.
4.Reaction to disturbance
Healthy gums usually have no reaction to normal disturbance
such as brushing or periodontal probing. Unhealthy gums on the other hand will
show bleeding on probing (BOP) and/or purulent exudate (pus
CAUSES OF GUM DISEASE.
Gum disease, is an infection of the gums caused by bacteria.
These bacteria produce toxins that irritate the gingiva, and also directly
infiltrate into the gingiva causing them to become inflamed and bleed easily.
The inflammation of the gingiva is known as gingivitis. If the irritation
persists, the gingiva separates from the tooth and form pockets. Plaque then
forms within these pockets and eventually destroys the gingiva and the
underlying bone. The teeth may then become loose and fall out or need to be
removed. There are other factors that may contribute to gum diseases. They are
1.Plaque traps-Decayed teeth, broken or ill fitting dentures,
crowded or crooked teeth, improper filled teeth may provide secure areas for
plaque to form, from where it cannot be removed by routine oral hygiene
2.Systemic factors-Individuals with diseases such as Diabetes,
leukemia or people who are on certain medications may be particularly prone to
gum diseases, because their resistance to this disease has been lowered and/or
that their gums become increasingly sensitive to any local irritation.
The following raise your risk for developing gingivitis:
2.Poor dental hygiene
3.Pregnancy (hormonal changes increase the sensitivity of the
Symptoms of Gingivitis:
1.Bleeding gums (blood on toothbrush even with gentle brushing
of the teeth)
2.Bright red or red-purple appearance to gums
3.Gums that are tender when touched, but otherwise
6.Shiny appearance to gums
If long standing inflammation is the cause of bleeding then
removal of the source of bacteria will result in improvement of the situation.
If the source is mild to moderate in collection. Proper maintenance of the teeth
by the patient is more than sufficient. If the source is moderate to severe in
collection then professional help is required. Serious systemic problems might
have to be treated to correct bleeding from these diseases. Repair of
misaligned teeth or replacement of dental and orthodontic appliances may be
recommended. Any other related illnesses or conditions should be treated.
Homoeopathy will help in treating these cases along with
hygiene maintenance. The medicines is selected on the basis of the symptoms
presented by the patient and causative factors with the help of miasmatic
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